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Atypical Pneumonia

Overview

Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung's parenchyma or the functional unit of the lungs i.e alveoli.This mainly due to the bacteria,viruses and other organism like fungi, mycoplasma,etc.Alveoli gets filled with the fluid results in the consolidation which is a clinical term for the solidification of the soft tissues of the lung.Alveolar spaces contains the fluid instead of gas.Consolidation is the basic feature of the pneumonia.Atypical pneumonia is the form of pneumonia which is caused by the organism other than bacteria.Usually the pneumonia is caused by the Streptococcus pneumoniae but it can be caused by other organism as well.


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Causes

Pneumonia can be caused by the microorganism,Irritants and unknown causes.The micro organism invade  the lungs and causes the symptoms,the symptoms also results from the activation of immune system like fever,etc.
The causative organisms for the atypical pneumonia:
 
                 *Chlamydophila pneumoniae
                 *Chlamydophila psittaci
                 *Coxiella burnetti
                 *francesella tularensis
                  *Legionella pneumophilla
                 *Mycoplasma pneumoniae
                 *Viruses like Respiratory synctial virus, Human para influenza virus,Influenza virusA and B

Viruses invade the cell lining the alveoli and airways which can kills the cells.When there is viral infection then it causes increase in the lymphocytes which activate the cytokines which are inflammatory chemicals and cause the inflammatory fluid to enter into the alveoli.So there is hypoxia all over the body and symptoms starts to arise.

Parasites get enter into the body through the skin or mouth and there is increase in the eosinphill amount due to the parasitic infection which further worsen the condition.Parasites include the Toxoplasma gonidii,Ascaris,etc..Atypiacal pneumonia with the mycoplasma is associated with the anaemia, rashes and neurological conditions like meningitis, encephilitis,etc

If on treatment person does not respond to antibiotics like penicillin or sulfonamides then we can conclude the it is caused by some other organism than bacteria


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Signs & Symptoms

The major symptoms are as follows:

Cough
 

Chest pain
 

Fever
 

Dyspnoea( difficulty in breathing)
 

Loss of appetite
 

Diarrhoea with the legionalla pneumoniae
 

Shortness of breath
 

Myalgia
 

Headache
 

 

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Prevention

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Treatments
Medications Modern Medicine

patients who are seen within 48 hours of symptom onset may benefit from treatment with oseltamivir or zanamivir for the virus like influenza A and B virus.
 

Macrolides (azithromycin) or fluoroquinolones (moxifloxacin) are the standard treatment for Legionella pneumonia in humans.
 

C. pneumoniae is the causative agent, then doxycycline, which is slightly more effective against the bacteria.
 

For mycoplasma pneumonia, doxycycline and floroquinolones are effective.

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